● Poor throwing power
● Poor solderability
● Improper anode corrosion
● Surface defects
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In general, if you don’t maintain the process parameters appropriately, there will be result in poor quality plating. Besides, it also will cause lots of substandard plating results. Hence, after plating, there will appear many problems. Now, I will describe these problems one by one.
1. Poor throwing power
Throwing power is a measure of an electroplating solution's ability to plate to a uniform thickness over an irregularly shaped cathode. If the irregularly shaped cathode's entire surface is plated to a uniform thickness, the solution has a perfect throwing power. Conversely, if it is plated only on areas near the anodes, then the solution has a poor throwing power.
2. Poor solderability
The solderability of a substrate is a measure of the ease with which a soldered joint can be made to that material. Good solderability requires wetting of the substrate by the solder.
3. Improper anode corrosion
Corrosion occurs at the anode, where metal dissolves. Often, this is separated by a physical distance from the cathode, where a reduction reaction takes place.
4. Surface defects
There will have some surface defects including tents, pits, voids, pinholes and inclusions.
Therefore, it is necessary to maintain the process parameters in order to minimize variations in bath composition, temperature and contaminants.