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"Bed of nails" is also a kind of testing way. This measures the resistance or conductance from locations on the PCB board surface to other points on the surface. From the Gerber files they know where there should be conductance and where there should be opens.
The PCB fab extract a pad-list and netlist from the gerbers, and then have a machine with robotic arms carrying test-probes, which is called Flying Probes to manually ohm-out all the connected nets.
E-testing is primarily used to detect bad plated holes, as this is the most common failure as it's more process-sensitive.
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